News of landslides often we heard on television or read it in print. Earthquake emergency kit landslide happens suddenly, making many victims. To anticipate the occurrence of landslide disasters, we must have a way to prevent landslides . We should know in advance the causes and prevention of this natural disaster.
Characteristics of Landslide Will Happen
- After the rain, looked cracks on the slopes
- Gravel tumbling, climbing looks less robust or fragile
- Suddenly raised new springs
- Stagnant water will disappear during the rainy season when there will be landslides
- Doors and windows difficult to open
- The trees appear to be misaligned
- Backyard or in the house suddenly collapses
Well, here is an explanation of the causes of landslides:
1. The rains – Heavy rainfall is one of the causes of landslides. When the drought, the soil will be dried and ground form pores (hollow ground) and subsequently developed cracks in the soil. When the rain came, automatic rain water will get into the soil cavities or pores of the soil open earlier. Rainwater that has fulfilled the cavity, causing a shift in the soil. Which ultimately resulted in landslides and soil erosion.
2. The destruction of stones – stones that are prone to landslides are rocks on the slopes, with a kind of sedimentary rock that is small and sedimentary rocks are of volcanic origin. Usually stones on the slopes of the nature obsolete or do not have the strength and easily crushed into the ground, this is the trigger landslides.
3. Piles of garbage – Garbage is piled up not only a cause of flooding , but also landslides. Yes, the trash as a trigger landslides if the garbage has been piling pressure coupled with high intensity of rain water.
4. deforested rainforest – Deforestation in the wild which resulted give effect due to deforestation can have an impact on the occurrence of landslides. As we know, there are trees on the hillside or trees in the surrounding forest, the roots bemanfaat to save water and reinforce the soil structure. So that the land will remain sturdy and landslides.
5. Vibration – Vibration caused by the small vehicle traffic around the slopes of the hills, not directly lead to the ground so landslides. But the process, the first street on the hillside are often bypassed vehicle will slowly developing cracks which if left unchecked, a long time will be a landslide. While large vibrations that directly causes landslides, among others caused by explosives or earthquake.
6. Erosion – Erosion is soil erosion. The causes vary, one of which is a stream that continues to erode the cliffs around him. Especially if it does not have a retaining cliff planted with trees, it is most likely to land on a cliff landslide.
7. Dam shrinkage – The fall in the ground and the occurrence of cracks caused by shrinkage of the lake or dam water level quickly. This shrinkage impact the loss of anchoring lereng.Waduk style with a slope of 220 o the potential for landslides.
8. The slopes and steep cliffs – The process of formation of a steep slope or cliff is the passage of wind and water around the slopes that have an impact on the erosion of the slope. Wary if in your neighborhood there are cliffs or steep slopes, as prone to landslides.
9. backlog of material – Many residents who want to expand settlements by landfill valley or cut off a cliff. Land used to hoard the valley, not really solid, so when the rain suddenly flushed may cause cracks and surface ground down.
10. The old Avalanche – In selecting residential areas, avoiding areas that have experienced landslides because the area is prone to landslides back. The soil is especially susceptible fall when there is pressure from wind, water, and others.
11. Overloading – There is too heavy a burden which would put pressure on the soil, so the soil prone to landslides. An example is their home, a settlement on the slope, passing vehicles in the corner of the valley.
12. Land is not solid – Land that is not solid example is clay. Soil properties which broke when the division of the seasonsuch as drought or dry sweeping and mushy when exposed to high rainfall causing prone to landslides. Ground about 2.5 meters thickness will be a landslide if any on the slope or the slope angle of 220 ° .
13. There is farmland on the slopes – Structuring of agricultural land or plantations bad will have an impact on the incidence of landslides. Agricultural crops and plantation roots are small and sturdy enough to keep the soil structure remains strong. Arbitrarily cut down trees to clear land and agricultural plantations without considering their effect. Trees were felled function strengthen the soil and the roots are able to absorb water, and to avoid the causes of global warmingso that when rainfall is high, it will not happen to landslides and flooding.
Landslide Disaster Prevention
- Avoid building a house under or near the cliff
- Create swales or terraces on steep slopes that form a settlement there
- Avoid open pond or plantations on the slopes near residential areas
- When it seems there are cracks, the cracks immediately cover with soil then compacted so that rain water can not break through the cracks of the soil
- Avoid cutting the cliff so upright
- Cutting of trees around the slopes should not be done
- Settlements were established on the banks of the river, prone to erosion. So find another secure area if you want to build the house
- Making the drainage channel (SPA) which can automatically become a channel ground water reservoirs (SPAT). When rainfall is higher mid channel into the SPA, but when low-intensity rain can turn into SPAT
- Planting perennials and lightweight, has a deep root in the region of steep
- Developing friendly farming land landslide, for example grow forage fodder by means of harvesting the crop.
Action when landslides occur
- Swiftly to rescue and provide relief quickly and appropriately to victims. This too was done so that the victims do not multiply
- Rehabilitate, restore the condition of the victim and its facilities infrastructure dn. For example, economic and social circumstances, including means of transport
- Studies on the development of landslides and how to control
- When the disaster is already difficult to be controlled, it must prepare the relocation of the victims of the landslide.