In the last three months of the Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG) noted that there had been earth 60 times in various regions in Indonesia .Often the intensity of the earthquake that occurred in Indonesia is a result of our country lies near the Eurasian tectonic plate boundaries and Indo-Australian . The eastern part of Indonesia is also the junction of three tectonic plates, the Philippine Plate, Eurasian Plate lempengPasifik and Australia.
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BMKG as the body tasked with predicting the weather, tsunami disaster and also earthquakes should be memperikarakan possibilities could diterjadi anytime and anywhere. It could be a possibility of tsunamis resulting from the earthquake or the vibration of the devastating earthquake which caused major damage .
To detect and quantify earthquake magnitude earthquake, BMKG has a number of quake detection equipment that has been installed at various points in Indonesia thus becomes a network. Here are some of earthquake detection device that is often used to measure the magnitude of earthquakes that occurred and determine the location hiposentrum.
This earthquake detection tool is already there since the founding of the earthquake monitoring stations in Indonesia. The first seismic station in Indonesia is a Jakarta geophysics station. Wiechert seismograph made in Germany have been installed since 1908. There are two components of the Wiechert seismograph vertical component to detecting and recording seismic waves or vertically. Another one is the horizontal component which serves as a detector and recorder horizontal waves.
Wiechert seismograph has a ballast made of plaster that weighed 1.5 tons. Initially the tool is installed in central Jakarta later in the move towards Kemayoran. This tool uses paper as the recording medium soot earthquake waves. The paper mounted on a drum recorder. When a vibration in detection, it will move the pen on a seismograph and seismogram describe on paper. However, this seismograph is not working anymore because of the connection to the pen has been broken.
The range of frequencies owned broadband seismograph seismograph wider than usual. The frequency range between 0.01 to 50 Hertz. Broadband is also sensitive to changes in temperature and atmospheric variety. Because it requires a special place seismographs in the installation. The place is usually a bunker under a layer of soil to the size of an area of one square meter. In the vicinity of broadband seismograph also sown fragments of cork to cover the body of a seismograph .
The workings of this digital seismographs that detect and record the vibrations then send vibration data to the amplifier. Of the amplifier are carried to a tool called an analog to digital converter (ADC) and then sent to the computer. Software within the next computer processing data generated by broaddband seiemograf. Software that is installed on computers typically named NetRec or MnoST.
Seismometer SS One Ranger
This analog seismometer has horizontal and vertical models, but the user must select one of the models. Placement of one ranger seismometer SS should not be in the bunker because broadband is not too sensitive as a seismograph. Seismometer can be placed on a stable surface.
Seismometers SS one ranger works by receiving a wave that causes the voltage on the coil calibration resulting magnetic force. The magnetic force moving the spring and produce the output of the signal lines. Seismometer is integrated in the SPs that are kependaekan of Short Period Seismograph. Data generated seismometers SS one ranger will support the main data generated broadband seismograph.
Smartphone as Earthquake Detection Tool
As the technology advances, the smartphone now has so many functions, including as a means of earthquake detection. How to turn a smartphone into earthquake detection tool? Smart phones we could be an earthquake detection device once installed an application called Myshake.
Researchers who developed the application is a team of scientists from California. Myshake we can download free of charge at Google Play Store. The sophistication of these applications can distinguish vibrations due to earthquakes or other vibrations.
Smartphone latest output is usually equipped with GPS and accelerometer. Myshake application works by utilizing the two sensors. Accelerometer sensor facilitates their mobile phones to measure earthquake waves. Seismic waves recorded this application can reach 5 magnitude that usually causes damage in a radius of ten kilometers from the epicenter. Disadvantages of this application can not detect primary waves. So the earthquake waves detected a secondary wave that is felt at the surface of the earth. However, these shortcomings can be covered with a network of some mobile phones integrate with each other so much faster in detecting earthquakes.
In addition to using the app, a smartphone can also detect earthquakes through a browser. By visiting a web page that provides a graph of seismic activity, the smartphone can be used like a seismograph. Although not as good sensitivity seismograph not real, but at least was able to simulate the seismic vibrations that occur.
Data Results of Earthquake Detection Tool
Earthquake detection device not only detects vibration but also record and record the vibrations that produce data magnitude quake. The data will be a reference to predict the likelihood of that happening is based on a scale of earthquake intensity (SIG). BMKG has 5 levels of earthquake intensity scale, with details as follows:
- scale I
The original scale has a white color code with a statement that the quake was not felt. More specifically, the earthquake was detected by the tool, but only felt by a few people.
- scale II
The second scale has a green color code with a statement that the quake was felt. The point is that earthquakes felt by the people but without any damage. The tremor just shook and wiggled glass window hanging objects.
- scale III
The color codes to scale III is yellow, with a statement that the quake caused minor damage. Light damage in question is the occurrence of a hairline crack in the wall of the building, as well as the collapse of some roof tiles.
- scale IV
Scale IV are color-coded orange (orange). Statement is any damage being like many cracks to the ground, the outbreak of the window panes, and the fall of most of genteng- roof tiles.
- scale V
The color codes to scale V is red, with the statement that the earthquake caused major damage. What is meant here is the fall of the heavy damage the walls of the building, even arched rail.