Occupational Health and Safety

Tarif Konsultan Iso 9001 – According Simanjuntak (1994), Workplace safety is a safety condition that is free from the risk of accidents and damage which we work which includes the condition of the building, the condition of the engine, safety equipment, and conditions for workers.

According to Ridley, John (1983), quoted by Boby Shiantosia (2000, p.6) means Occupational Health and Safety is a condition in which healthy and safe work either for the job, the company and for society and the environment around the factory or workplace the.

Jackson (1999, p. 222), explained that the Health and Safety at Work showed physiological conditions and psychological-physical labor caused by the working environment provided by the company.

According Suma’mur (2001, p.104), safety is a series of efforts to create a working atmosphere that is safe and secure for employees who work in the company concerned.

Mathis and Jackson (2002, p. 245), states that Safety is a reference to the protection of a person’s physical well-being of the work-related injury. Health is a reference to the general conditions of physical, mental and emotional stability in general.

According Mangkunagara (2002, p.163) Occupational safety and health is a thought and effort to ensure the completeness and perfection of both physical and mental labor in particular, and humanity in general, and cultural work towards a just and prosperous society.

According Mangkunagara (2002, p.170), that the cause of the safety indicator is the state where the working environment, which includes:

  • a. Preparation and storage of dangerous goods that are less quantifiable safety.
  • b. The work space is too crowded and claustrophobic.
  • c. Sewage and waste is not in place.
  • d. Use of work equipment, which includes:
  • e. Safety work equipment that is outdated or damaged.
  • f. The use of machinery, electronic equipment without a good security lighting settings.

K3 based industrial sector
K3 specific and may vary in certain industrial sectors. Construction workers will require prevention of the danger of falling, while the whisper drowned fishermen face. Bureau of Labor Statistics United States said that fisheries, aviation, wood industry, agriculture, mining, metalworking, and transport is the most dangerous industry.

    • 1. Construction Sector

Construction is one of the most dangerous jobs in the world, resulting in the death rate the most among other sectors. The risk of falling is the supreme cause of the accident. The use of adequate safety equipment such as a guardrail and helmets, as well as the implementation of security procedures such as inspection of non-permanent ladders and scaffolding to reduce the risk of accidents. In 2010, the National Health Interview Survey to identify the organization of work and psychosocial factors and exposure to chemical / physical work that is able to increase some risks in K3.

Among all construction workers in the United States, 44% do not have a standard work arrangements, while workers in other sectors is only 19%. In addition 55% of construction workers have experience of insecurity in work, compared to 32% of workers in other sectors. 24% of construction workers are not exposed to smoke his job, compared with 10% of workers in other sectors.

    • 2. Agricultural Sector

Overturned tractor with protection systems, agriculture workers at risk of injury, lung disease caused by exposure to engine fumes, noise, skin pain, and cancer due to chemicals such as pesticides. In the agricultural industry, the accident involving the use of tools and farm machinery. The most common accident is the toppled tractor. Pesticides and other chemicals used in agriculture are also harmful to the health of workers, able to cause health problems and disorders of sex organs childbirth.

The number of working hours of the workers in agriculture in the United States showed that 37% of employee working hours to 48 hours a week, and 24% work more than 60 hours a week. Trust the height of working hours lead to high risk of accidents. And of all the workers in the agricultural sector, 85% more often worked outdoors than other sectors by only 25%.

    • 3. The services sector

A number of jobs in the service sector related to manufacturing industry and other primary industries, but not exposed to the same risks. The main health problems of employment in the services sector is obesity and psychological stress as well as excess working hours.

    • 4. mining and petroleum sector

Workers in the oil and mining sector has a risk of exposure to chemicals and fumes are harmful to health. The risk of skin exposure to hazardous chemicals, smoke inhalation, to other risks such as homesick as work locations away from home, even down to the offshore area.

Health and Safety (K3) is a field related to health, safety, and welfare of the human beings who work in an institution and location of the project. K3 purpose is to maintain the health and safety of the working environment. K3 also protect co-workers, family workers, consumers, and others who may be affected working conditions.

Health and safety is quite important for the moral, legal, and financial. All organizations have an obligation to ensure that workers and others involved remain in a safe condition at all times. Practice K3 (occupational health safety) covering prevention, sanctions, and compensation, as well as wound healing and treatment for workers and provide health care and sick leave. K3 related to occupational medicine, safety engineering, industrial engineering, chemistry, health physics, industrial and organizational psychology, ergonomics and occupational health psychology.

Dangers and problems on the job

  • 1. Physical Hazards

Physical hazards are a major source of accidents in many industries. The danger may be unavoidable in many industries such as construction and mining, but over time, people develop methods and safety procedures to manage these risks. Child laborers face a problem that is more specific than adult workers. Falls are accidents and causes of death in the workplace the most important, especially in construction, extraction, transportation, and maintenance of buildings.

Machinery is the main component in a variety of industries such as manufacturing, mining, construction, and agriculture, and could endanger workers. Many machining involving the removal of components at high speed, have sharp edges, hot surfaces and other hazards that could potentially crush, burn, cut, stab, and provide impact and injuries to workers if not used safely.

Cramped workplaces ventilated and entrance / exit is limited, such as military tanks, drains, and so on are also dangerous. Noise is also a danger in itself capable of resulting in a loss of hearing. These extreme temperatures of heat capable of providing heat stress, fatigue, cramps, rashes, mengabutkan safety glasses, dehydration, causing the hand sweating, dizziness, and others that may jeopardize safety. In extreme cold temperatures, the risk faced is hypothermia, frostbite, and so on. Give an electric shock hazard risks such as electric shock, burns, and falls from the facility electrical installation.

  • 2. Biological hazards


  • bacterium
  • Virus
  • fungi
  • Blood-borne pathogens
  • Tuberculosis



  • 3. Chemical Hazards


  • Acid
  • alkali
  • Heavy metal
  • Solvent
  • Petroleum
  • particulate
  • Asbestos
  • silica
  • Smoke
  • Reactive chemicals
  • Fire, flammable materials
  • Explosion



  • 4. The psychological and social problems


  • Stress from work hours too high or does not match the time
  • Violence in the organization
  • Oppression
  • Sexual harassment
  • The existence of opium unpleasant materials in the work environment, such as cigarettes and alcohol.


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